Konsep Dasar HTML

HTML: Bahasa Web Browser

“HTML” adalah singkatan dari “HyperText Markup Language”. Pada dasarnya, HTML adalah bahasa yang digunakan untuk mengatur agar teks menjadi memiliki tampilan yang berbeda – beda, seperti bold atau italic, namun tidak terbatas pada hal itu saja.

HTML adalah bahasa dasar yang dipahami oleh web browser. Kita menggunakan banyak bahasa pemrograman di sisi server, seperti PHP, Perl, Ruby, dan lain – lain, namun pada akhirnya, semua bahasa server tersebut akan mengeluarkan hasil akhir berupa HTML (atau Javascript dan CSS). Browser anda akan memproses HTML dan membuatnya menjadi halaman web yang dapat dibaca manusia dengan mudah sesuai bagaimana programmer membuatnya.

Seperti yang sering saya jelaskan di post sebelumnya, HTML adalah bahasa pemrograman di sisi client, sehingga tidak dapat melakukan pemrosesan server seperti melakukan perhitungan matematis, logika if, mengambil data dari database, menerima request, dan lain – lain.

Mari sekarang kita belajar untuk menulis di HTML.

HTML Membungkus Teks Biasa

HTML adalah bahasa markup, jadi sebagian besar HTML hanyalah teks biasa. Contoh, di bawah ini adalah kode HTML :

Halo, saya adalah HTML. Ashiap. Mantap.

Tapi tunggu dulu, kalimat di atas tidak seperti bahasa komputer. Terlihat seperti teks biasa saja.

Yes, HTML memang merupakan teks yang dapat dibaca. Contoh di atas adalah wujud paling mendasar dari HTML.

 

Belajar dari Pengalaman Word Processor

Tentu saja kita ingin lebih dari sekedar text biasa. Contohnya,  huruf miring atau italics.

Kita mengetahui bahwa untuk membuat huruf menjadi italic di program word processor (seperti Microsoft Word, atau LibreOffice), kita hanya perlu menekan tombol I.

Semua kata – kata yang kita ketik setelahnya akan menjadi italics. Kita bisa mengetiknya sampai beberapa halaman. Untuk mengakhirinya, kita hanya perlu sekali lagi menekan tombol I tersebut, sehingga font yang kita ketik setelahnya akan menjadi normal kembali.

Jika kita kembali ke pertengahan kalimat yang telah kita ketik secara italic, ketika kita mengetik teks baru, juga akan menjadi italic. Ada semacam titik awal dan titik akhir dimana kata – kata yang kita ketik akan menjadi italics.

 

HTML Menggunakan “Tags”

HTML juga menggunakan penanda awal dan akhir dari setiap jenis font yang kita buat. Perbedaannya adalah, di HTML, kita dapat melihat penanda tersebut. Bahkan kita dapat mengetiknya langsung. Penanda tersebut disebut dengan Tag HTML.

Sebagai contoh, Anda ingin membuat kode HTML seperti contoh yang saya sebutkan sebelumnya. Anda ingin membuat tulisan “Ashiap” menjadi huruf miring atau italic. Maka Anda perlu mengetik :

<i>Ashiap</i>

Kode lengkap seperti di bawah ini

Halo, saya adalah HTML. <i>Ashiap</i>. Mantap.

Lalu Anda perlu menyimpannya di editor teks, menaruhnya file tersebut di server, kemudian menjalankannya pada browser. Ketika browser menampilkannya, kode tersebut akan terlihat seperti ini :

Halo, saya adalah HTML. Ashiap. Mantap.

Tidak seperti Microsoft Word, Anda tidak melihat kode <i> pada tampilan di browser. Anda mengetikkan kode tersebut, kemudian browser membuat semua huruf yang ada di dalamnya menjadi italic.

 

Jangan Lupa Menutup Tag HTML

Menutup tag HTML sangat penting untuk dilakukan. Jika Anda lupa mengetik penutup tag :

</i>

seperti ini :

Halo, saya adalah HTML. <i>Ashiap. Mantap.

Ini sama saja Anda lupa klik tombol I pada Microsoft Word. Anda akan mendapatkan hasil seperti ini :

Halo, saya adalah HTML. Ashiap. Mantap.

Satu kesalahan pada penutup tag HTML, seluruh kode Anda bisa menjadi berantakan.

 

Selanjutnya, Pelajari Tags HTML

Selamat, Anda telah mempelajari konsep dasar HTML.

HTML kurang lebih adalah teks biasa yang dibuka dan ditutup dengan tag HTML.

Selanjutnya, mari pelajari tag – tag dasar HTMl yang sering digunakan. Saya akan menguploadnya di post berbeda setelah ini.

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